Module 7: Thermodynamics (8 Days)
This unit bundles student expectations relating to how matter reacts with changing temperature, how thermal energy is controlled and utilized, and the limitations on using thermal energy to do work.
Prior to this unit, students have explored the law of conservation of energy and how energy impacts work and motion. In this unit, students will further refine their knowledge of this law and how it relates to the laws of thermodynamics. This unit will also introduce the basics, show some applications for those basic principles, and then present additional results of thermodynamic study without detailed analysis. After this unit, students will use the concepts to develop a better understanding of electricity and magnetism.
What is thermodynamics?
What impact do the Laws of Thermodynamics have on machines?
How is the temperature of a substance related to the thermal energy of its atoms?
What is the underlining principle behind the movement of heat by conduction, convection and radiation?
Boil Water in a Balloon
An interesting demonstration about the behavior of heat energy in different materials.
Knowledge & Skills
The student is expected to describe how the macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system such as temperature, specific heat, and pressure are related to the molecular level of matter, including kinetic or potential energy of atoms.
The student is expected to contrast and give examples of different processes of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation.
The student is expected to analyze and explain everyday examples that illustrate the laws of thermodynamics, including the law of conservation of energy and the law of entropy.
Thermodynamics is the study of how matter reacts with changing temperature and how heat energy is controlled and utilized.
The first law of thermodynamics is a statement of conservation of energy for a system (such as an engine), relating heat, internal energy, and work.
The second law of thermodynamics can be expressed several ways, but describes the limitations (e.g., efficiency) on systems using thermal energy.
The macroscopic concepts of temperature and thermal energy have microscopic explanations. A complete description requires understanding phenomena at both levels.
Heat is thermal energy in movement, which occurs by conduction, convection, and radiation.
Students may think that energy gets used up.
Students may think heat and temperature is the same thing.
Students may think everyone understands what is ‘hot’ and ‘cold,’ not realizing those terms do not mean the same thing in science as they do in everyday life.
Thermodynamics – the study of the effects of heat, work, and energy on a system
Thermal energy – a form of kinetic energy resulting from the motion of particles that is transferred as heat
Specific heat – the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree centigrade
Macroscopic – larger view of a system
Microscopic – very small view of a system
Temperature – the property of an object to tells how warm or cold an object is
Specific heat – the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree Celsius
Pressure – force per surface area
Conduction – energy transfer from one material to another by direct contact
Convection – energy transfer by movement within a material
Radiation – energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves
Draw a diagram of a steam turbine, label how heat is transferred in the system, and explain how the terms latent heat, specific heat, and the laws of thermodynamics apply at both the microscopic and macroscopic level.
Choose a graphic organizer to outline the development of the laws of thermodynamics in historical terms relating to heat engines and to modern applications of heating and cooling.
This module will have the stated performance indicators as well as the unit assessment and one exam.